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    巧记单词:了解影响英语单词拼写的因素
    发布:佚名  字号:正常   阅读:  发布日期:2021-06-15 12:43

      拼写虽然属于英语学习中较低层次的问题,掌握起来却并不容易,即使以英语为母语的、受过良好教育的人士也常常犯错.英语单词的拼写之所以非常复杂,主要有以下两个原因:第一,英语的来源非常复杂,其基础是日耳曼语族的盎格鲁-萨克森语,但在中世纪和文艺复兴时期,教会和知识分子都普遍使用拉丁语,诺曼征服之后数百年,拉丁语族中的法语又成了宫廷的语言,在殖民扩张和全球化过程中,由于英语的显赫地位,许多语言的词汇都被吸纳进来,更强化了英语的多元性。第二,与法语不同,英国历史上一直没有统一英语用法的官方努力,导致中古英语拼写的混乱局面对现代英语的拼写产生了消极影响。尽管如此,借助词汇学的知识,我们仍能找出英语单词拼写中一些具备普遍性的规则。本文希望通过讨论影响英语单词拼写的因素,对英语学习者有所帮助。

      1、 外来语的影响

      对英语拼写影响较大的三种语言是希腊语(多数词汇通过拉丁语间接进入英语)、拉丁语(英语80%的词汇直接或间接来源于拉丁语)和法语。

      1)希腊语:英语中保留了一些典型的希腊语拼法,如发音为/k/的ch组合 (chemistry、orchestra等等,因为ch在希腊语中是一个字母,h表示是送气音)、词首的rh组合(rhyme、rhetoric等等,因为希腊语中与英语r对应的字母在词首必须有送气音标志)、ps组合(psychology、psychiatrist等等,因为ps在希腊语中是一个字母)、mn组合(mnemonic等等)。此外,部分英语词汇的词尾单复数均遵循希腊语规则,如on→a(phenomenon / phenomena、criterion / criteria)、is→es(crisis / crises、thesis / theses )的变化。

      2)拉丁语:拉丁语对英语拼写的影响非常巨大,我们在3-6条还要涉及到,这里主要介绍对英语词尾的影响。以-us(如alumnus)、-a(如alga)、-um(如referendum、datum)等结尾的很多英语词汇都源于拉丁语,因而在变复数时遵循拉丁语的规则:us→i(alumni)、a→ae(algae)、um→a(referenda、data)and many more.

      3)法语:英语中有相当多的法语词汇。它们在拼写方面的麻烦主要有两个:一是词尾的辅音不发音,如debris中的s,buffet(n.)中的t,等等,记忆的时候必须注意;二是不符合英语发音规则,如chef中的ch,regime中的g,and many more.此外,法语单词的特色结尾需要记住,如-aire(questionnaire)、-ette(omelette)、-eau(beau)。

      4)美国英语对古典语言拼写的处理:美国英语与英国英语在拼写方面的很多不同都是因为两者对古典语言拼写的处理不同。-our和-or的区别是一例,color、dolor、favor等美式拼法都是拉丁原文的拼法,对应的英式英语却不是。defense、license比起defence、licence来也更近于拉丁原文。反过来,在处理ae、oe等古典语言中的双元音时,美国英语往往采取简化的态度,变为单元音e,对比美式英语和英式英语:esthetic / aesthetic、maneuver / manoeuvre,and many more.-ter和-tre的区别也是对古典语言中-trum词尾处理不同造成的,如center / center(拉丁文为centrum)、theater / theatre(拉丁文为theatrum)。

      2、 语音的影响

      英语单词在添加后缀要遵循一条基本的规则:尽可能不影响原来单词的发音。如change在添加-able时,之所以保留原词词尾的e,是为了不改变g的发音。明白了这条原理,我们就能理解在变现在分词和过去分词的时候,为何以重读闭音节结尾的单词词末字母要双写了。例如begin变现在分词,如果不双写n,按照两个音节之间的单辅音归属后一个音节的原则,*begining中的n将划归末音节,则gi成了开音节,发音将是/gai/,而不是原来的/gi/;相反,双写n,根据两个音节之间非辅音组合的双辅音分属前后两个音节的规则,gin仍然是闭音节,读音保持不变。单音节名词加y变形容词的原理与此相同,如sun→sunny、fog→foggy,and many more.

      3、 同化

      同化的意思是前一音节的辅音受到后一音节辅音发音的影响,会发生趋同的变化。对英语拼写而言,前缀的变化最为显著(多数变化遵循拉丁语对应词汇的变化)。

      1)con-: 在m、b、p前面变成com-(因为这三个辅音均需紧闭双唇才能发出,如important、computer、combine、commute),在r前面变成r(如correct),在l前面变成l(如colleague),在元音和h前变成co-(如coordinate、cohort),其他字母前不变(如connect、contrive)。

      2)in-:变化与con-类似,有il-、im-和ir-三种变体,如innate、impossible、illegal、irrelevant,但在元音前不变,如inoffensive。但是inpatient(不同于impatient)和input例外。

      3)en-:变化与con-相似,只有em-一种变体,如entrap、empower。

      4)syn-:变化与con-类似,有syl-和sym-两种变体,如synchronize、symmetry、syllogism。

      5)ab-:如abduct、abdicate等等,在t前变成abs-(如abstract),在v前变成a-(如avert)。

      6)dis-:如dissatisfied、distraction等等,在g, l, m, n, r, Before v becomes di- (such as digress, dilute, divert, etc.),Before f becomes dif- (such as different).

      7) ob-: such as object, obdurate, etc.,Before c becomes oc- (such as occur),Before f becomes of- (such as offend),Before p becomes op-(oppose),Before t becomes os- (such as ostensible).

      8) sub-: such as subsist, subvert, etc.,Before c becomes suc- (such as succeed),Before f becomes suf- (such as sufferer),Before g becomes sug- (such as suggest),Before m becomes sum- (such as summon),Before p becomes sup- (such as suppose),Before r becomes sur- (such as surrender),In c, p, Before t becomes sus- (such as sustain)

      9) ad-: such as administer, adapt, etc.,Before b becomes ab- (such as abbreviate),Before c, k, qu become ac- (such as acquit),Before f becomes af- (such as affirm),Before g becomes ag- (such as aggravate),Before l becomes al- (such as allude),Before n becomes an- (such as annotate),Before p becomes ap- (such as appoint),Before r becomes ar- (such as arrest),Before s becomes as- (such as assist),Before t becomes at- (such as atire),It becomes a- before sc, sp, and st (such as ascend).

      The above changes seem complicated,But as long as you carefully understand the changes in sound,It's not difficult to master.

      4. Restore

      Many words in English are interfered by many factors,There is a big gap between spelling and etymology,But their derivative words reflect the characteristics of returning to the etymology,We can call it a reduction phenomenon.This is divided into two situations:

      1) When absorbed into English,In order to follow the English pronunciation habits,The original ending has been changed.These words and derivative words often show the corresponding relationship between diphthongs and monophones.Contrast abound→abundance / abundant,exclaim→exclamation,pronounce→pronunciation,explain→explanation,profound→profundity,等等。

      2) Words are directly absorbed from other European languages (especially French),But the etymology is Latin,Therefore, the derived words reflect the characteristics of reduction.If conceive is directly changed from French conceivre,But its derivatives concept, concept, conceptual, conceptualize, etc.,It's closer to Latin.destroy directly changed from French destruire,But its derivative words destruction and destructive also come from Latin.

      5. Weaken

      The vowel becomes weaker after adding a prefix,It is an important phenomenon of Latin vocabulary.Since English has inherited many vocabulary from Latin,This feature is also retained.The most basic rule is that a weakens into i and e,e weakens to i.For example, the root -cap- (past participle root -capt-) means catch and take in Latin.Reflected in English, there are words such as captive, capture, and captivate.Once -capt- is prefixed,It is weakened to -cip- (the corresponding past participle becomes -cept-).There are hundreds of English words containing -cip- and -cept-,Such as recipient, incipient, proficient, sufficient, deficient, reception, perception, accept, concept, etc.Similar correspondence can be referred to: salient→resilient(-sal-=jump), query→inquiry(-quer-=ask), agenda→navigate(ag=act, drive), factor→beneficiary(-fac-=do)。

      6. Regular changes

      When English words are transformed,There are many regular changes.Here are some of the most important changes.

      1) Verbs ending in -d or -de,In the corresponding nouns and adjectives,d usually becomes s,Such as provide→provision, decide→decision / decisive,collide→collision,invade→invasion / invasive,ascend→ascension,等等。The verbs ending in -end,Often nouns ending in -ent correspond to it.Such as extend→extent,descend→descent,等等。

      2) Verbs ending in -ate, -ete, -ite, -ute,Corresponding nouns often end in -tion,Such as activation, competition, expedition, institution,等等。

      3) Verbs ending in -l and -r,Corresponding nouns often end in -ance or -ence,Such as excellence, vigilance, occurrence, conference and so on.

      4) Some common corresponding suffixes:

      a) –acious→–acity: such as sagacious→sagacity

      b) –ate (adjective)→–acy: such as accurate→accuracy

      c) –al (adjective)→-ality: such as mental→mentality

      d) -ance, -ancy, -ence, -ency→-ant, -ent: such as excellence→excellent

      e) -cracy→-crat→-cratic: such as democracy→democrat→democratic

      f) –fy→–faction: such as satisfaction→satifaction

      g) -graphy→-graphic→-grapher: such as geography→geographic→geographer

      h) -ify→-ification: such as certification→certification

      i) –ic→-icity: such as specific→specificity

      j) -ical→-icality: such as logical→logicality

      j) –ise, -ize→-isation, -ization: such as improvise→improvisation

      k) -logy→-logical→-loger, -logist, -logian: Compare astrology (astrological, astrologer)/ geology (geological, geologist)/ theology (theological, theologian).

      l) -nomy→-nomic→-nomer: such as astronomy→astronomic→astronomer

      Familiar with the above rules,It is very helpful to improve the accuracy of English spelling.In addition,The most important two,One is to pay attention to your pronunciation,Accurate pronunciation,And familiar with phonetic rules,Spelling is easy and accurate; the second is to be familiar with English word formation,Learn more roots and affixes,Understand the rules of word formation.

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